Tuesday, March 17, 2020
How to Write a High School Book Review How to Write a High School Book Review Instructors are fond of assigning book reviews in high school. Most students think that book reviews are some sort of punishment that ensures they read the whole book and write a 500 word critique. However, book reviews are assigned to students so that they can develop a better understanding of the society in which they live and the world at large. How to write a high school book review is a nightmare for most high school students who despise reading, but it does not have to be if one follows some simple rules. First, one must understand the nature of a book review, which is the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to a specific book rather than a simple summarization of the work. A book review involves analyzing the validity of the content, purpose, and organization of the book. There are two basic kinds of book reviews, descriptive and critical. Descriptive book reviews evaluate the pertinent information offered in the book through exposition and description and is couched in the context of literary and historical values. These attributes are then supported by evidence from the work. The writer states and examines the perceived purposes and intentions of the author, often quoting some of the most compelling excerpts from the text in an effort to illustrate a point. However, in most cases, high school students are assigned critical book reviews to complete as part of their literature assignments as opposed to descriptive. In a critical book review, students must be conscious of two requirements. First, students need to be well informed of the work under review. This necessitates that the student understand the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose and how the sections of work contribute towards the purpose in writing. Gaining a basic knowledge about the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life experiences, as well as other works by the author and time period of publication, will often facilitate the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to understand the influences on the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s works. Secondly, it is imperative for students to understand the genre of the text. Understanding the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s genre is simply to be conscious of the art form of the book and utilization of its characteristics. Without knowledge of the genre, students have no literary understanding upon which evaluation s are based. The basics of a book review also include having a sense of what the reader expects to find in the critique. The reader should be able to glean from the critique some understanding of authorÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and intentions without reading the original text. Main events and themes of the book are presented in a coherent and precise manner. Finally, in a review, apart from communicating the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose, it is prudent for the reviewer to express an opinion about the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s success in achieving the purpose in writing the book. Students must be certain to provide adequate evidence to support personal opinions. In summary, completing a book review, just like making a book report, requires one to read through the entire text and offer a reaction to the content of the book, as well as its organization and the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to express ideas in a clear and concise manner. The student will find it helpful to develop and follow an outline as a way to organize ideas in a coherent manner. Finally, the student must spend time revising and proof-reading the critique. Visit to get professional book review help from academic experts who hold Masters and PhD degrees.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Balance Redox Reaction Example Problem When balancing redox reactions, the overall electronic charge must be balanced in addition to the usual molar ratios of the component reactants and products. This example problem illustrates how to use the half-reaction method to balance a redox reaction in a solution. Question Balance the following redox reaction in an acidic solution: Cu(s) HNO3(aq) Ã¢â â Cu2(aq) NO(g) Solution Step 1: Identify what is being oxidized and what is being reduced. To identify which atoms are being reduced or oxidized, assign oxidation states to each atom of the reaction. For review: Rules for Assigning Oxidation StatesAssigning Oxidation States Example ProblemOxidation and Reduction Reaction Example Problem Cu(s): Cu 0HNO3: H 1, N 5, O -6Cu2: Cu 2NO(g): N 2, O -2 Cu went from oxidation state 0 to 2, losing two electrons. Copper is oxidized by this reaction.N went from oxidation state 5 to 2, gaining three electrons. Nitrogen is reduced by this reaction. Step 2: Break the reaction into two half-reactions: oxidation and reduction. Oxidation: Cu Ã¢â â Cu2 Reduction: HNO3 Ã¢â â NO Step 3: Balance each half-reaction by both stoichiometry and electronic charge. This is accomplished by adding substances to the reaction. The only rule is that the only substances you can add must already be in the solution. These include water (H2O), H ions (in acidic solutions), OH- ions (in basic solutions) and electrons. Start with the oxidation half-reaction: The half-reaction is already balanced atomically. To balance electronically, two electrons must be added to the product side. Cu Ã¢â â Cu2 2 e- Now, balance the reduction reaction. This reaction requires more work. The first step is to balance all atoms except oxygen and hydrogen. HNO3 Ã¢â â NO There is only one nitrogen atom on both sides, so nitrogen is already balanced. The second step is to balance the oxygen atoms. This is done by adding water to the side that needs more oxygen. In this case, the reactant side has three oxygens and the product side has only one oxygen. Add two water molecules to the product side. HNO3 Ã¢â â NO 2 H2O The third step is to balance the hydrogen atoms. This is accomplished by adding H ions to the side that needs more hydrogen. The reactant side has one hydrogen atom while the product side has four. Add 3 H ions to the reactant side. HNO3 3 H Ã¢â â NO 2 H2O The equation is balanced atomically, but not electrically. The final step is to balance the charge by adding electrons to the more positive side of the reaction. One the reactant side, the overall charge is 3, while the product side is neutral. To counteract the 3 charge, add three electrons to the reactant side. HNO3 3 H 3 e- Ã¢â â NO 2 H2O Now the reduction half-equation is balanced. Step 4: Equalize the electron transfer. In redox reactions, the number of electrons gained must equal the number of electrons lost. To accomplish this, each reaction is multiplied by whole numbers to contain the same number of electrons. The oxidation half-reaction has two electrons while the reduction half-reaction has three electrons. The lowest common denominator between them is six electrons. Multiply the oxidation half-reaction by 3 and the reduction half-reaction by 2. 3 Cu Ã¢â â 3 Cu2 6 e-2 HNO3 6 H 6 e- Ã¢â â 2 NO 4 H2O Step 5: Recombine the half-reactions. This is accomplished by adding the two reactions together. Once they are added, cancel out anything that appears on both sides of the reaction. Ã Ã Ã 3 Cu Ã¢â â 3 Cu2 6 e- 2 HNO3 6 H 6 e- Ã¢â â 2 NO 4 H2O 3 Cu 2 HNO3 6H 6 e- Ã¢â â 3 Cu2 2 NO 4 H2O 6 e- Both sides have six electrons that can be canceled. 3 Cu 2 HNO3 6 H Ã¢â â 3 Cu2 2 NO 4 H2O The complete redox reaction is now balanced. Answer 3 Cu 2 HNO3 6 H Ã¢â â 3 Cu2 2 NO 4 H2O To summarize: Identify the oxidation and reduction components of the reaction.Separate the reaction into the oxidation half-reaction and reduction half-reaction.Balance each half-reaction both atomically and electronically.Equalize the electron transfer between oxidation and reduction half-equations.Recombine the half-reactions to form the complete redox reaction.
Friday, February 14, 2020
What are the three most important aspects or sections of the constitution - Essay Example The Constitution aids in enforcing the boundaries and rights of this relationship. While every aspect and section of the Constitution is important to maintaining control and equality in the United States amongst all citizens, there are some sections that stand out from the others. The Constitution, penned over a span of many years and approved of on September 17, 1787, consists of numerous articles, clauses, and amendments that help to define the relationship that exists between the government, the states, and every citizen of the United States.The first ten amendments, also known as the Bill of Rights, the Fifteenth Amendment, and Article Five each have a significance not only in its context, but in the history behind their existence. Bill of Rights The first ten amendments in the Constitution are more commonly referred to as the Bill of Rights and were among the first laws agreed upon for United States citizens. Just as the name suggests, the purpose of these amendments is to outli ne the legal rights that all United States citizens are entitled to. The significance of the Bill of Rights is that they show some of the issues that existed back when they were first penned in 1789; they also reveal the responses that were given to some of these problems and what was done to overcome them. These were issues that were at the hearts of many of the citizens of America, as well as the government officials that could make the desired changes for the sake of humanity. As amendments of the Constitution, these rights are meant to be upheld and exercised as people see fit. They are also used to help citizens should their rights be questioned, especially in a court of law. One of the most important and most exercised amendments in the Bill of Rights is the First Amendment, which allows for freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition. It is this amendment that has allowed people to speak their minds and express their thoughts and feelings, just as long as they adhere to the portion of the amendment that goes against speaking with the intention of starting a physical altercation with another. Under this amendment, citizens are able to freely express themselves as individuals, providing opportunities to healthily debate with others that do not agree on the same position. The significance of this amendment is that it allows citizens to exercise their rights to be individuals without having to censor themselves. Furthermore, it is because of the First Amendment that the United States has the media and art that it does. By exercising their rights to speak or express themselves freely, people have written literature, painted pictures and buildings, and have made careers as musicians under this amendment. It can be said that an entire amendment is the cause of a free, expression-filled America. Yet another most touched-upon amendment, as well as the most controversial, is the Second Amendment, which allows citizens the right to possess weapons. The imp ortance of this amendment is that it provides citizens with the opportunity to protect themselves and their families. Despite the controversy surrounding this amendment and how it should be interpreted, this amendment is being used to make sure that people are entitled to certain levels of physical protection. The Second Amendment is currently being tried in college campuses throughout the United States with the hopes that school-related violence will be drastically decreased. This amendment caters to the safety of American citizens while ensuring that the method of safety is properly implemented and not abused. The importance of these two amendments does not suggest that the other amendments are unimportant to the citizens of the United States. The Sixth Amendment promises a speedy trial for criminal offenses and the Seventh Amendment guarantees a trial by jury of the defendant's peers; the Fourth Amendment
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Should Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) be considered in the rating of Wall Street companies - Research Paper Example This poses the question whether CSR should be considered in rating of Wall Street companies. In this paper, CSR is discussed in cases for and against inclusion in Wall Street company ratings. Approaches to CSR, research and trends are also examined. The author argues that CSR is important and should be considered side by side the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ ratings so that stakeholders get a clearer picture about the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ operations in the society they work with. The author proposes a simple, qualitative rating scale as a starting point for something as universal as CSR for inclusion in rating Wall Street Companies. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an ethical belief and practice that companies, just like individuals, are responsibilities as good stewards of the society in which they do business with (Wood, 1991). Corporations have an obligation to act in ways that will benefit or sustain society and that their responsibility is not lim ited to their profit. In the last decade, we have seen movements gather momentum requesting for more corporate social responsibilities in ethical practices, for the environment, the working conditions of employees, for the local communities, and towards all stakeholders from suppliers to post-consumption of products. CSR is soon to be integrated with the human resources, business development, operations, and relations (Barnea and Rubin, 2010). This paper will examine the two companies rated by Wall Street: Goldman Sachs and British Petroleum (BP), which very recently have been involved in practices that did not do well to the society in which they do business with. An attempt will be made to see if CSR should be considered in their ratings. In the year 2010, each of the three major credit rating agencies - MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s Investor Services, Standard & Poor's and Fitch Ratings - rated both of these companies mainly on their credit worthiness. In the same year, Fortune Magazine also na med them as two of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most admired companies. The question then is whether these companies should be rated solely on scales that show their credit-worthiness or should these ratings also include a dimension that will show how well a company performing in the society in general. British Petroleum (BP) In April 2010, an explosion occurred on BP's oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. The Coast Guard reported that 11 people were killed, 17 other others injured and about 4.9 million barrels of oil released to the Gulf of Mexico affecting Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida. The oil spill caused extensive environmental damage to the sea and wildlife creatures in the Gulf of Mexico. It also damaged the fishing and tourism industries. The US Government held BP accountable for the damages. BP officials committed to shoulder all cleanup costs and other damages. In addition, the company is also being investigated for alleged unsafe practices which caused the occurrence on the rig leading to the explosion. An internal probe made BP admit to mistakes that led to the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In 2010, MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s rated BPÃ¢â¬â¢s senior unsecured ratings as an Aa2 from Aa1. Fitch Ratings rated BPÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term issuer default rating and senior unsecured rating as an AA from AA+. Reuters also reported in June 2010 that Standard and
Friday, January 24, 2020
Female genital mutilation is a practice deeply enmeshed in the cultural beliefs of many Africans and select groups around the world. Also, just like any other culture, they will cling even more strongly to their ancient traditions when their beliefs are challenged by people from an outside culture. When someone from another country comes to a tribe to essentially tell them that one of their most basic traditions is wrong, problems usually ensue. This is mainly because, in an AfricanÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, the outsider does not understand the tribeÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and so has no valid privilege to tell the tribe what they should or should not do. In this way, even if there are a select few men and women that support the foreignerÃ¢â¬â¢s view, they run the risk of ridicule or even banishment from their fellow peers and will not step forth to condemn their ages-old practice. To further explain the gravity of this situation, one must understand that in many villages if a woman is not cut, then she is, in the words of Rogaia Abusharaf, Ã¢â¬Å"generally assumed to be promiscuous, a man-chaser.Ã¢â¬ In other words, Ã¢â¬Å"genital cutting is considered an essential aspect of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s identity.Ã¢â¬ Thus, decreasing the prevalence of cutting is a very intricate process that involves a deep change in a cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s social beliefs. I agree with Abusharaf when she states Ã¢â¬Å"without a deep commitment from within these cultures to end the cutting, eradication efforts imposed from the outside are bound to failÃ¢â¬ (Abusharaf). Now, the question is how to first initiate these changes within a culture that practice female cutting as easily as breathing. Cutting is not something they openly discuss amongst themselves, but is essentially regarded as a necessary tradition. It is the norm in t... ...understand that death or later sickness a woman can catch is most likely from the procedure. Together, we can help the movement to end FGM and soon no woman or child will have to undergo the unnecessary torture and humiliation from the procedure. Works Cited Abusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Ã¢â¬Å"Unmasking Tradition.Ã¢â¬ Sciences. 38. 2(1998):22. eLibrary. Web. 11 Oct. 2011. Ben-Ari, Nirit. "Changing Traditions to Safeguard Women."Africa Recovery. Africa Recovery, May 2003. Web. 4 Dec 2011. Ã¢â¬Å"Female Genital Mutilation-A Guide to Laws Policies Worldwide [Part 2 of 20].Ã¢â¬ Contemporary WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Issues Database. 01 Jan. 2000: 1+. eLibrary. Web. 11 Oct. 2011. Rosenberg, Tina. "Editorial Observer; Mutilating Africa's Daughters: Laws Unenforced, Practices Unchanged."Ã The New York Times. The New York Times, 05 Jul 2004. Web. 4 Dec 2011.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"On the RoadÃ¢â¬ by Jack Kerouac is largely autobiographical work attributed to the genre of stems of consciousness creation. The novel is based on the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s spontaneous trips with his friends across mid-century America. The novel is deeply inspired by poetry, jazz and drug experiences. The author has changed many of the names, but most references are claimed to be real-world counterparts. In the five parts and sixteen chapters the author describes restless and crazy journeys of Dean, Sal and his friends across the country. Dean Moriarty plays important role in the novel progression as he symbolizes the changeable nature of human relations and the dark side of society. Nevertheless, he pushes and inspires other to act towards their destinies symbolizing changes and shifts. Dean is certainly negative character, though he has positive impact of Sal Ã¢â¬â one of the protagonists Ã¢â¬â as he makes his stronger and more confident. Dean lives in San Francisco, travels across the country. Kerouac defines Dean as Ã¢â¬Å"the perfect guy for the road because he actually was born on the roadÃ¢â¬ . (p. 0) However, he presents Dean as wild and mad character stressing that it is his craziness and energy that affects others to act. Dean drinks a lot, uses drugs and has many women. Moreover, he is a father of four children from two different women. Dean manages to change the life values of Sal. For example, before Sal meets Dean, he had Ã¢â¬Å"just gotten over a serious illness thatÃ¢â¬ ¦had something to do withÃ¢â¬ ¦my feeling that everything was deadÃ¢â¬ . (p. 10) DeanÃ¢â¬â¢s character can be defined as embodiment of the whirlwind day and as SalÃ¢â¬â¢s shifts from the East to the West Coast. Dean symbolizes changes acting as mechanism for movement beginning. Dean is zealous and wild personality, though he is captivating as well. Sal says about Dean: Ã¢â¬Å"the only people for me are the mad ones, the ones who are mad to live, mad to talk, mad to be saved, desirous of everythingÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ . (p. 14-15) Therefore, DeanÃ¢â¬â¢s character plays crucial role for SalÃ¢â¬â¢s development as personality, as well as he is the embodiment of passion for life and constant activity.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Pope John XXIII played a vital role in shaping Christianity as we know it today. He contributed socially, politically and liturgically and was a major influence in the establishment of ecumenism and interfaith dialogue between other churches and religions. He advocated Christian unity, social justice, human rights and the promotion of world peace, and his openness to all people led to him obtaining the name Ã¢â¬Å"Good Pope JohnÃ¢â¬ . The early life of Pope John XXIII shaped his morality and future ideas, and his travelling made him tolerant towards other people, cultures and beliefs. He believed that Ã¢â¬Å"No one is excluded by loveÃ¢â¬ and pursued this belief throughout is papacy, even visiting prisons in order to forgive those who had sinned,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Not only did Pope John XXIII improve relationships between Christian variants but he also increased the dialogue between other religions, especially seeking to repair relations with the Jews who were blamed for JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ death. A more positive view of non-Catholics Christians and of other religions was encouraged as Pope John XXIII believed that if there was no dialogue between them and Catholics, then all doors would be closed. Pope John XXIII was involved with politics and during the Russia and Cuban Missile Crisis, he initiated a public plea to power holding leaders to negotiate peace and prevent a war with devastating consequences. He promoted prayers of world peace around the globe and even initiated dialogue with Communist world leaders and others clearly opposed to Christianity. His hospitality to Communists was highly controversial amongst the Catholic church, and showed how he believed strongly in developing ties in order to discuss human rights and encourage peace. During his Papacy, Pope John XXIII published several encyclicals promoting world peace(Pacem in Terris) and increasing the consciousness of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s dignity and rights of workers, women and newly independent nations (Mater et Magisterum). Pacem in Terris was addressed to the whole world and received warmly by Christians and non-Christians alike. It altered thinking about the Cold War and initiated the resurgence of Catholic social teaching. John PopeShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Vatican: Saint Peters Basilica, Rome, Italy2817 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesafter Jesus? death, the Apostle Peter, along with the Apostle Paul, traveled to Rome to proselytize.[i]? Rome was the capital of the Empire, and as one of its? most populous areas, was an ideal location to spread the Word of God.? 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